The Country where Mark Tobey was born

Here we are at our weekly appointement with Mark Tobey.
I already talk you about how I discovered him (here).
Today we start reading his bio and knowing the historical and cultural context in which he was born and grew.

Mark George Tobey was born in Centerville, Wisconsin on December 11 1890.
The village of Centerville dates back to the early '60s when a Lutheran and a Catholic church were erected there and several stores and a mill established.
He was the youngest of four children. His parents were George Tobey, a carpenter and house builder, and Emma Cleveland Tobey.

Ancestral call by Larry Roberts
What kind of Country was North America by the end of 19th Century?
Before and during the Civil War (1861-1865) America was an agricultural nation, but in the late ninteenth century the United States became an industrial country.
Its population triplied, the farm production doubled, manufacturing grew exponentially, and working-class women were important to the new industrial economy. Millions of peoples moved from the countryside to cities, and also migrants from Southern (Italy) and eastern Europe (Poland, Russia) went to live in the new American cities.

on Wiki

Cities grew into metropolitan areas with suburbs connected by mass transit. The first American subway was the Tremont Street Subway in Boston, opened on 1897. The construction of skyscrapers changed the cities skyline. Engineers, designers, managers, and salesmen was added to the middle-class. New public istitutions were established in metropolitan centers.
The feminist movement worked hard for the women's emancipation.

Chicago 1893
World's Columbian Exposition

In a few decades, the North America hosted some world's fairs, as Philadelphia's Centennial Exposition (1876), the Internation Cotton Exposition in Atlanta (1881), The American Exhibition of the Products, Arts and Manufactures of Foreign Nations in Boston (1883), the Internation Industrial Fair in Buffalo (1889). The World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893), the Nation Export Exposition in Philadelphia (1899), and the World's Pure Food Exposition in Chicago (1907).
Those fairs gave impulse to cultural and art movements.The architects Burnham and Sullivan planned the White City of Chicago's 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. Chicago and New York City became revals in Architecture and Art.

on Pinterest
The Art and Crafts Movement, developed in England during the latter half of the 19th century, influenced many American designers, who reinterpred that syle creating the Craftsman Style. That movement gave professional opportunities to architects,  designers, artisans.This means that decorative arts influenced the industrial production.

Now we have an idea of the historical cultural setting where Mark Tobey was born. We back to his biography.
In 1894  his family moves to Trempealeau, Wisconsin, where Tobey spend his childhood and adolescence.
In !906 his family moved to Hammond, Indiana, and Tobey attended the Art Institute of Chicago.

Living in Chicago was important for Tobey. I'll tell you why next Saturday.


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